CMS 5: Tracking Studies

Overview

CMS5 was a qualitative longitudinal tracking tool which documented the dynamics of extreme poverty (as it was experienced) and changes in beneficiaries’ lives as a result of project interventions. It looked in-depth at the original positions of households before the project (through Life Histories) and then tracked their change throughout the intervention (through Reflections on the Interventions).

The methodology tracked households via employment, diets and asset based indicators.   Movement in and out of extreme poverty was analysed according to 6 well-being categories.  A presentation given at the Extreme Poverty Research Group (EPRG) in August 2011 on the methodology and a number of case studies is available here.

The Centre for Development Studies (CDS) at Bath University (UK) was the shiree consortium partner that supported this element of the Change Monitoring System.  Researchers in each of the Scale Fund NGO partners were engaged in the development and implementation of the CMS5 tracking studies. The households were anonymised to protect the identity of participant beneficiaries.

The following are some of the questions which CMS5 sought to answer.

What events and crises in someone’s life made them extreme poor? What risks and vulnerabilities do households face?  In what way are the shiree-supported projects working to meet these threats?  What is the position of children in households?  How are households’ spending money and reinvesting profits from income generating activities?  Has the change to a household through a project been maintained over time?  What are the outside factors (such as social relations and networks, or risks such as theft and disaster) which bear importance and need programmatic attention?

What can I see?

Reflective CMS 5 – Life Histories and Reflections on the Interventions

Click on names in the table below to read the stories of a sample of Scale Fund beneficiaries before the project. These life histories provide a stark picture of the reality of beneficiaries’ lives in extreme poverty before the projects began (a baseline situation).

The final round of tracking studies for these 36 beneficiaries are now available online; some are in draft form and others are final. These document all the major changes and events that have occurred in the beneficiaries lives from initial intervention until the date stipulated. To view these in full, click on the dates next to the beneficiary that you are interested in.

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

An analysis comparing quantitative (CMS3) and qualitative (CMS5) data between March 2010 and March 2011 has been completed.  The report provides a picture of the state of extreme poverty among Shiree beneficiaries in this period. Click the below link to read the report.

Quantitative and Qualitative (Q2) Analysis of the Changes in Households Between March 2010 – March 2011


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 Care

Care beneficiaries in the North-West of Bangladesh face seasonal hunger (known locally as ‘Monga’).  The qualitative accounts draw particular attention towards women’s separation, widowhood and domestic abuse, and the role that these play in causing downward livelihood mobility.

Life History (baseline survey) Key words

Reflections on the intervention

1

2

Final

Abida Begum Silently female headed, abandoned, divorce, domestic abuse, destitution, dowry, exclusion from safety nets

June/July 2011

 Jan 2013 Final
Latif-Miah Moderate poor, speech disability, milk seller, community advisor, cash for work

June/July 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Mahfuja-Begum Silently female headed (within marriage), indolent and violent husband, agricultural labourer, quilting,

June/July 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Makul-Mohanto Agricultural labourer, child labour, speech disability, severe communication issues

June/July 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Sajida-Begum Loan and purchase of assets, dowry, separation of sons and destitution, husband illness, widow, exclusion from safety nets

June/July 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Shahinur-Miah Rickshaw van puller, NGO loan, herbal treatment, vaccination, child labourer

June/July 2011

Jan 2013 Final

 

dsk

Dushtha Shasthya Kendra (DSK)

Living in urban Dhaka, DSK beneficiaries have diverse histories. A number have migrated to Dhaka from situations of extreme vulnerability such as the coastal region. These stories show the challenges faced from sickness, early marriage and unexpected events like road accidents, and the overall impact these have on poverty status.

Life History (baseline survey) Key words

Reflections on the intervention

1

2

Final

Nasrin Alam Slum dwelling, orphaned, migration, abandonment, social exclusion, health shocks, petty trading Sep 2011 Jan 2013 Final
Piari Begum Early marriage, gambling, escaping husband through migration, duster producing and selling Nov 2011  Jan 2013 Final
Rafeza Begum Vulnerability, resilience, legal institutions, police enforcement, cyclone Sidr, extreme poor marriage, eviction Nov 2011 Jan 2013 Final
Rubina Khatun Destitution, slum dwelling, orphaned, early marriage, chronic illness of husband, migration, flood, social exclusion, petty trading, widow Nov 2011 Jan 2013 Final
Sharna Begum Domestic abuse, separation, silently female headed, slum dwelling, migration, chronic illness, gambling, food support from neighbours, begging Aug 2011 Final
Marium Begum Destitution, poor health, accident of breadwinner, defrauded, large family size, illiteracy, poor social connections Dec 2011 Jan 2013 Final

 

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NETZ

Adivasis living in the Barind Tract (North-West Bangladesh) have faced a long history of economic deprivation and social exclusion. The following narratives show how the political turmoil of the 1970s, followed by famine, impacted a family’s experience of chronic food insecurity. Other household stories have been shaped by widowhood, a dependence on begging, managing survival in a large household with 9 children, coping with disability, and being tied into ongoing traps of informal lending.

Life History (baseline survey) Key words

Reflections on the intervention

1

2

Final

Dipali-Baroi Downward mobility, famine, starvation, robbery and assault, begging, protracted illness and death of husband

July 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Gouri-Chhatri Elder brother separation, destitution, long-term bonded labour, ill health, eviction, asset stripping, downward mobility, food price hikes, inflation

July 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Laksmi Murmu Domestic abuse, male son preference, ill health, male unemployment, land grabbing, illegal occupation, Chuani production

Dec 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Madhabi Hasda Physically challenged, carer, legal expenses, size of family, separation, eviction, descent into destitution Jan 2013 Final
Malati Hebbrom Downward mobility, starvation, begging, domestic abuse, alcoholic husband, problems with eyesight, dowry

July 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Ramisa Begum Widow, withdrawal of kids from education, child labour, separation of male son, downward mobility,

July 2011

Jan 2013 Final

 

pab
Practical Action Bangladesh (PAB)

Practical Action beneficiaries live on the river eroded embankments in North-West Bangladesh. Many have lost their land due to river bank erosion and still face the challenge of seasonal flooding. Finding employment here where agricultural land is scarce is particularly difficult.

Life History (baseline survey) Key words

Reflections on the intervention

1

2

Final

Goni Mondol River Erosion of land, agricultural labour, sickness, migration, dowry,  agricultural  land eroded, exclusion from safety net July 2011 Jan 2013 Final
Zahidul Islam Agriculture day labour, river erosion, flood, dwelling alongside the embankment, dislocation, BRAC, ASA, Rickshaw/Van puller, family separation July 2011 Jan 2013 Final
Jalmai Begum Acute poverty, abandonment,  safety net, child enrolment in school, early marriage, river erosion, embankment July 2011 Jan 2013 Final
Bakkar Ali River Erosion, agricultural labour, sickness, migration, dowry, agricultural  land eroded, exclusion from safety net, traditional birth attendant, Richshaw/van pulling by migrating the home, fraud, debt recycle July 2011 Jan 2013 Final
Fahmida Begum Multiple river erosion and loss of home and livelihood, dowry, accident, maternal illness, childhood domestic servant, micro credit, loan, safety net program, food for education program, VGD. July 2011 Jan 2013 Final
Asraful Islam Destitution, assets, liabilities, dowry, intergenerational patron-client relationships , river erosion, migration,  illness, separated, dowry, starvation, silent female headed household July 2011 Jan 2013 Final

 

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Save the Children

Working in the flood prone areas of Bagerhat and Khulna in South-West Bangladesh, these households face a variety of climatic and disaster specific vulnerabilities. One of these beneficiaries has worked as a domestic helper in a brothel, and another is a widow of 9 children. Issues of chronic illness and children labour are also highlighted in these accounts.

Life History (baseline survey) Key words

Reflections on the intervention

1

2

Final

Bithi Mondol Parent’s illness, disaster vulnerability, abandonment, widow

July 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Farida Begum Female headed household, abandonment, second marriage, separation of sons, dependence on relatives, early marriage

July 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Halima Begum Separation, injury, death of husband, destitution, deprived of land inheritance, large family, natural disaster, extreme poor marriage

July 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Khalil Howlader Healthcare costs, natural disaster, ganja addiction, debt trap, separation from joint family, destitution

July 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Moni Talukder Unstable family life, destitution, child labour, physical illness, natural disaster, social support

July 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Ovi Akangi Father’s chronic illness, distress sale, unstable married life, high dependency ratio, natural disaster

July-Aug 2011

Jan 2013 Final

 

Print
Uttaran

Also working in the flood-prone South-West (Khulna and Satkhira), these beneficiaries have faced losses to their livelihoods from multiple cyclones and tidal surges. The stories hold accounts of struggles with land grabbers, shrimp production, early marriage and mental illness.

Life History (baseline survey) Key words

Reflections on the intervention

1

2

Final

Aduri Begum Social conflict, land grabbing, shrimp production

June/July 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Kamrunnahar Natural disaster, cyclone Sidr, Aila, tidal surges, dowry, domestic violence

July 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Rani Bala Natural disaster, cyclones, middlemen, extreme poor marriage

Dec 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Romena Begum Separated, patron client relationship, dependence on parents, road maintenance work

Dec 2011

Jan 2013 Final
Shah Alam Shrimp farming, child labour, poverty trap of insufficient capital, vulnerability, crop loss through virus infection, khasland

June/July Jan 20132011

Jan 2013 Final
Zamila Begum Early marriage, extreme poor marriage, mental illness, Cyclones Sidr and Aila, Separation, destitution

Nov 2011

Jan 2013 Final

 

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ADD International
Life History (baseline survey) Key words

Reflections on the intervention

1

Final

Bidhan Destitution, Begging, Child Labour, Disability, liabilities, social exclusion,  illness, abandonment, natural disaster

April 2013

Final
Jamil-Ali Widowhood, disability, centripetal crack, migration April 2013 Final
Mintu Ali Ageing, river erosion, flood, theft, eviction April 2013  Final
Mujibur Rahman Visually Impaired, disability, liabilities, social exclusion, divorced June 2013 Final
Rokeya Begum Widowhood, disability, centripetal crack April 2013 Final
Sagarika Jaldas Destitution, begging, disaster, widowhood, migration, high dependency ratio, health shocks April 2013 Final
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Caritas
Life History (baseline survey) Key words

Reflections on the intervention

1

Final

Ching Chu Chu Large family, high dependency ratio, foot injury

April 2013

Final
Joya Ching Marma Working extreme poor, disappearance, death, Handicrafts worker, depression, widow  April 2013 Final
Ko Sa U Almost disabled, old age, death of four children, migration  April 2013 Final
Maya Chak Destitution, death of three children, widowhood, health shocks, reliance on relatives April 2013 Final
Riti Ching Marma Polygamy, gambling and unreliable husband, death of children, female employment  April 2013 Final
Su Mu Mra Divorce, abandonment, female-headed household, centripetal crack  April 2013 Final

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Concern Worldwide
Life History (baseline survey) Key words

Reflections on the intervention

1

Final

Bipula Khatun Natural disaster, health shock, high dependency ratio, child labour, death of income earner April 2012 Final
Jarighos Begum Divorced, Disabled, destitute, high dependency ratio, dowry March 2012 Final
Jebunnessa Widow, child labour, natural disaster, disappearance, centripetal crack April 2012 Final
Marium Begum Money lending, corruption, theft, accident April 2012 Final
Saju Begum Divorced, Disability, begging, mentally impaired

March 2012

Final
Tazlima Begum Natural disasters, health shocks, selling labour in advance, asset erosion March 2012 Final

ecodev

Eco Dev
Life History (baseline survey) Key words

Reflections on the intervention

1

Final

Subra Tripura Leprosy, migration, widowed, disabled, rat infestation, wild animals, petty business, traditional institutions, Chittagong Hill Tracts May 2013  Final
Mong Marma Jum cultivation, abandonment, domestic abuse, health shock, conditional land, community support, Chittagong Hill Tracts May 2013 Final
Unuching Marma Jum cultivation, rat infestation, alcohol addiction, gambling, health shock, separation, migration, Chittagong Hill Tracts May 2013 Final
Sonali Devi Tanchangya Jum cultivation, migration, abandonment, child out of wedlock, disability, infant mortality, Chittagong Hill Tracts May 2013 Final
Aung Ching Jum cultivation, wild animals, health shock, wild animals, forests,  customary rights, asset erosion May 2013 Final
Manu Ching Marma Jhum cultivation, Husband’s arrest, loans, health shock, Chittagong Hill Tracts April 2013 Final

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iDE
Life History (baseline survey) Key words

Reflections on the intervention

1

Final

Hena Begum Destitute, agricultural labourer, abandoned, urban slum eviction, mentally challenged son May 2013 Final
Parboti Par Female managed family, destitute, dowry, social exclusion, deaf and disability August 2013 Final
Salma Self managed family, destitute, dowry, deaf father, abuse, extreme vulnerability August 2013 Final
Nargis Working extreme poor, Dowry, VGD, Earth cutting, health shock September 2013 Final
Piara Begum Female managed, working extreme poor, health shock, van puller, housemaid, centripetal crack

August 2013

Final
Shahana Female managed family, destitute, domestic violence, disability, income earners’ death August 2013 Final

oxfam

Oxfam
Life History (baseline survey) Key words

Reflections on the intervention

1

Final

Anita Vadro Health shocks, death of income earners, centripetal crack after marriage,  husband disability May 2013 Final
Chili Abandoned, divorced, arrested husband, second marriage and migration May 2013 Final
Hasi Cheating husband, disabled father, lack of education, divorce, centripetal crack, heart disease, natural disasters June 2013 Final
Monzu Begum Death of brother, abandonment, Physically disabled, health shocks May 2013 Final
Paru SIDR, father’s temporary abandonment, health shock, centripetal crack, loss of assets, loans June 2013 Final
Rehana Migration, Centripetal Crack, Environmental shock, Loss of main income-earner, Abuse, Husband’s impairment May 2013 Final







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